Electro Therapy Electrotherapy is the use of electrical energy as a medical treatment. 1. Pain Management Improves range of joint movement 2. Treatment of Neuromuscular Dysfunction Improvement of strength Improvement of motor control Retards muscle atrophy Improvement of local blood flow 3.Improves Range of Joint Mobility Induces repeated stretching of contracted, shortened soft tissues 4. Tissue Repair Enhances microcirculation and protein synthesis to heal wounds Restores integrity of connective and dermal tissues 5. Acute Chronic Edema Accelerates absorption rate Affects blood vessel permeability Increases mobility of proteins, blood cells and lymphatic flow 6. Peripheral Blood Flow Induces arterial, venous and lymphatic flow 7. Iontophoresis Delivery of pharmacological agents 8. Urine fecal Incontinence Affects pelvic floor musculature to reduce pelvic pain and strengthen musculature Treatment may lead to complete continence Electrotherapy is used for relaxation of muscle spasms, prevention and retardation of disuse atrophy, increase of local blood circulation, muscle rehabilitation and re-education electrical muscle stimulation, maintaining and increasing range of motion, management of chronic and intractable pain, post-traumatic acute pain, post surgical acute pain, immediate post-surgical stimulation of muscles to prevent venous thrombosis, wound healing and drug delivery. 1. Modalities: Ultrasound is applied using a transducer or applicator that is in direct contact with the Patients skin. Gel is used on all surfaces of the head to reduce friction and assist transmission of the ultrasonic waves. Therapeutic ultrasound in physical therapy is alternating compression and rarefaction of sound waves with a frequency Of 20,000 cycles/second. Therapeutic ultrasound frequency used is 0.7 to 3.3 Mhz. Maximum energy absorption in soft tissue occurs from 2 to 5 cm. Intensity decreases as the waves penetrate deeper. They are absorbed primarily by connective tissue: ligaments, tendons, and fascia (and also by scar tissue). 2. IFT: The basic principle of Interferential Therapy (IFT) is to the physiologic portable strong ifl effects of low frequency (250pps) electrical stimulation of nerves without the associated painful and somewhat unpleasant side effects sometimes associated with low frequency slim. 3. TENS: Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) currently is one of the most commonly used forms of electro analgesia. Hundreds of clinical reports exist concerning the use of TENS for various types of conditions, such as low back pain (LBP), myofascial and arthritic pain, sympathetically mediated pain, bladder incontinence, neurogenic pain, visceral pain, and postsurgical pain. Because many of these studies were uncontrolled, there has been ongoing debate about the degree to which TENS is more effective than placebo in reducing pain. 4. Electrical Stimulation: Electrical muscle stimulation (EMS), also known as neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) or electromyostimulation, is the elicitation of muscle contraction using electric impulses. EMS has received increasing attention in the last few years, because it has the potential to serve as: a strength training tool for healthy subjects and athletes; a rehabilitation and preventive tool for partially or totally immobilized patients; a testing tool for evaluating the neural and/or muscular function in vivo; a post-exercise recovery tool for athletes. The impulses are generated by a device and delivered through electrodes on the skin in direct proximity to the muscles to be stimulated. 5. LASER: Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) is a form of laser medicine used in physical therapy and veterinary treatment that uses low-level (low-power) lasers or light-emitting diodes to alter cellular function. Other names for the therapy include low-power laser, soft laser, cold laser, biostimulation laser, therapeutic laser, and laser acupuncture. Whereas high-power lasers ablate tissue, low-power lasers are claimed to stimulate it and to encourage the cells to function. 6. SWD: In the natural sciences, the term diathermy [di´ah-ther″me] means "electrically induced heat" the use of high-frequency electromagnetic currents as a form of physical or occupational therapy and in surgical procedures. The term diathermy is derived from the Greek words dia and thermal, and literally means “heating through.” adj., adj diather´mal, diathermia. It is commonly used for muscle relaxation. It is also a method of heating tissue electromagnetically or ultrasonically for therapeutic purposes in medicine. Diathermy is used in physical therapy and occupational therapy to deliver moderate heat directly to pathologic lesions in the deeper tissues of the body. Diathermy, whether achieved using short-wave radio frequency (range 1–100 MHz) or microwave energy (typically 915 MHz or 2.45 GHz), exerts physical effects and elicits a spectrum of physiological responses, the two methods differing mainly for their penetration capability. 7. Traction: Spinal traction stretches the spine to take pressure off compressed discs. This straightens the spine and improves the body's ability to heal itself. Spinal traction therapy can be administered manually or mechanically, depending on a patient's needs. Manual Spinal Traction: In manual spinal traction, a physical therapist uses his hands to put a patient in a state of traction. Then he or she uses manual force on the joints and muscles to widen the spaces between vertebrae. Mechanical Spinal Traction: In mechanical spinal traction, a patient lies on a table that has special tools to stretch the spine. A physical therapist will attach a series of ropes, slings, and pulleys to the patient to mechanically relieve pressure. Spinal traction is a non-surgical way to relieve pain and correct problems in the spine. While it does have some potential side effects, spinal traction offers consistent relief for most patients.
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